Leaf Circuits


Printed electronics have been utilized for the fabrication of functional devices and in prototyping techniques in the recently developed field of human-computer interactions (HCI). Silver nano-particle inks and paper can be easily used for rapid prototyping. However, this technique require special paper when creating circuits. In addition, when the circuit is used for a long time, the resistance value of the circuit changes due to the chemical change of the surface. This paper describes a rapid prototyping method using a metal leaf and laser printer. Metal leaves can be purchased very cheaply online. The metal leaf is adhered to paper using a toner used in a laser printer. Users design a circuit diagram using software and output it using a laser printer. When the metal leaf is placed on the output circuit diagram and pressed with an iron, the metal leaf adheres to the circuit diagram. Removal of the excess metal leaf completes the metal leaf circuit diagram on the paper. This metal leaf circuit is capable of producing circuits on paper that can be printed by a laser printer without special paper. By using the change of temperature of toner, we can easily cut and repair the circuit. We have confirmed that it can be used for a long time. We used a toner transfer paper and made the circuit on plywood and satin cloth. When mounted on cloth, it has been confirmed that the circuit can be easily bent, and washing is also possible. In addition, we made a metal-leaf circuit on the cloth with the masu sake cup, and evaluated it. From our evaluation experiments, it can be seen that the present technology allows anyone to easily create a metal-foil circuit as long as the circuit is applied by software.


  1. Norihisa Segawa, Kunihiro Kato, and Hiroyuki Manabe. Rapid Prototyping of Paper Electronics Using a Metal Leaf and Laser Printer, The Adjunct Publication of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST'19), pp.99-101, (2019).
  2. 瀬川 典久, 加藤 邦拓, 真鍋 宏幸. レーザプリンタと金属箔を用いた回路の試作 ver2, 第27回インタラクティブシステムとソフトウェアに関するワークショップ (WISS 2019) 論文集, (2019). (予稿なし発表)
  3. 加藤 邦拓, 真鍋 宏幸 , 川原 圭博, 瀬川 典久. Leaf Circuits: 金属箔とレーザプリンタを用いた回路作成の応用と評価, インタラクション2020論文集, pp.96-105, (2020). [PDF]